Archivos de diario de julio 2021

26 de julio de 2021

Effect of recent heat wave on Douglas-Fir on Highway 20 in the Cascade Range

The unusually hot weather at the end of June had negative effects of people, plants, and other organisms. However, the damage was patchy. I documented the extent of damage to conifers along Highway 20 in Lincoln and Benton Counties, Oregon by driving the road and stopping to photograph plants, then uploading the photos to iNaturalist. Observation numbers, species, and results are results are listed below, along with the approximate location of the observations.

No damage was observed close to the coast, but damage was obvious from a little west of Toledo to approximately the Lincoln/Benton County border. No obvious damage was observed east of there into the Willamette Valley at Corvallis. On some hillsides, nearly all the conifers appeared damaged, but that was not always the case.

Damage consisted of dead young branches on the southwest (to west and south) side of trees. For that reason, it was not obvious when driving west toward Newport but was easily seen when driving east. The great majority of the damaged conifers were Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-Fir) because that is by far the most common conifer in the area, but damage was also seen on Thuja plicata (Western Red Cedar) and Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock). Most deciduous trees appeared undamaged, although those Alnus rubra higher above waterways had lost upper leaves.

The surprising result of this survey is that the conifers in the eastern Coast Range lacked obvious heat damage, while those in the western Coast Range (except very close to the coast) were damaged.

Explanation of the table. Observations are sorted by species, then by location, west to east. The phrase "Heat damage" indicates that damage was photographed; if that phrase is lacking, heat damage was not observed. To visit an observation, insert the observation number (Obs_#) into the URL https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/88346965

Obs_# scientific_name tag latitude longitude
88333205 Picea sitchensis 44.63607995 -124.0328932
88333208 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.63610385 -124.0323103
88333894 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.63440526 -124.0187767
88333895 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.63411399 -124.0183787
88334894 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.63122203 -124.0063891
88334896 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.6314221 -124.006172
88334899 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.6315 -124.00662
88335502 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62938707 -123.9878988
88335503 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62832175 -123.985544
88335943 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62527 -123.98189
88335944 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62527 -123.98189
88336330 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62671 -123.9707
88336331 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62671 -123.9707
88336332 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.62678233 -123.9706562
88338291 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.62923 -123.96184
88338293 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.630804 -123.9598403
88339124 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.629454 -123.9550403
88339125 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.629454 -123.9550403
88339127 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.629454 -123.9550403
88339131 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.629454 -123.9550403
88346964 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6324318 -123.9474903
88346965 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6324318 -123.9474903
88347712 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64085 -123.934
88347713 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64085 -123.934
88348966 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.644036 -123.9240517
88348969 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.644036 -123.9240517
88348974 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.643964 -123.9247132
88413571 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.646373 -123.9195653
88413572 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.646318 -123.9194544
88413574 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6471 -123.91927
88413575 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6471 -123.91927
88413577 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6471 -123.91927
88414544 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65177 -123.91726
88414545 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65177 -123.91726
88414547 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65177 -123.91726
88415632 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6605 -123.9118093
88415633 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.660465 -123.9118093
88417488 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6631685 -123.904519
88417489 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6624695-123.9072625
88417490 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66159 -123.90747
88419690 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.674892 -123.8909007
88419691 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.675017 -123.8900689
88419692 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.674863 -123.8897006
88420894 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66827 -123.85067
88421558 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66423 -123.84913
88421559 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66423 -123.84913
88421560 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66423 -123.84913
88422206 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66106 -123.84942
88422207 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66106 -123.84942
88422208 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.66106 -123.84942
88422773 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65121 -123.83172
88422775 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65121 -123.83172
88422777 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65121 -123.83172
88422779 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65121 -123.83172
88422784 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.65121 -123.83172
88487612 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64798 -123.8219997
88487613 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64798 -123.8219997
88487621 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64798 -123.8219997
88487626 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64797 -123.8221048
88488401 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64373 -123.81301
88488402 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.64373 -123.81301
88490931 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63969 -123.8013472
88490936 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63969 -123.8013472
88490937 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63969 -123.8013472
88490938 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63969 -123.8013472
88490941 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63937 -123.799139
88490942 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63698 -123.8016364
88490943 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.63866 -123.7968973
88491807 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.62763 -123.76401
88551722 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.61745 -123.73053
88551724 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.61745 -123.73053
88551725 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.61745 -123.73053
88551730 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.61745 -123.73053
88552778 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.62075 -123.71294
88552779 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.62075 -123.71294
88552781 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.62075 -123.71294
88552784 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.62075 -123.71294
88553578 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.61874 -123.6836
88553581 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.61874 -123.6836
88553582 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.61874 -123.6836
88553585 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.61874 -123.6836
88553587 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.61874 -123.6836
88554532 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6202 -123.6492
88554533 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.6202 -123.6492
88554534 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6202 -123.6492
88554538 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.6202 -123.6492
88681198 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.61614321 -123.6303367
88681200 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.61478212 -123.6303738
88681994 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.60427 -123.6223094
88681995 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.60427 -123.6223094
88681996 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.60427 -123.6223094
88681997 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.60401 -123.6222084
88682483 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.60229 -123.609793
88682486 Pseudotsuga menziesii Heat damage 44.60229 -123.609793
88683531 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683532 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683533 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683535 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683536 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683537 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683540 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683543 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88683545 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59507 -123.58834
88684345 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59970597 -123.5515906
88684346 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59970597 -123.5515906
88684347 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59970597 -123.5515906
88684352 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59970597 -123.5515906
88684353 Pseudotsuga menziesii 44.59970597 -123.5515906
88415631 Thuja plicata Heat damage 44.65981846 -123.9115014
88417493 Thuja plicata Heat damage 44.66159 -123.90747
88419696 Thuja plicata Heat damage 44.67441246 -123.8906934
88490933 Thuja plicata Heat damage 44.63969025 -123.8013472
88490946 Thuja plicata Heat damage 44.63969025 -123.8013472
88420887 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.66853046 -123.8478076
88420888 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.66853046 -123.8478076
88420890 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.66853046 -123.8478076
88420891 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.66853046 -123.8478076
88487614 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.64797541 -123.8219997
88487616 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.64797541 -123.8219997
88487618 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.64797541 -123.8219997
88487619 Tsuga heterophylla Heat damage 44.64797541 -123.8219997

Ingresado el 26 de julio de 2021 por sedgequeen sedgequeen | 1 observación | 5 comentarios | Deja un comentario

10 de julio de 2021

What is the Blackberry That Ate The Pacific Northwest?

It's a member of the European Blackberry Complex, which includes R. fruticosa, R. armeniaca, R. bifrons, R. ulmifolia, and others. There's a basic, biological problem with members of this complex. (This explanation is somewhat simplified.)

Most species reproduce sexually. A very common, widely used definition of the species is a group of organisms that breed with one another, producing fertile offspring. Even if they looks a bit different, they're the same species if they breed together. Consider variation within the species humans, or mallard ducks, or dogs, etc. We can tell where the species boundaries are by who breeds with whom (producing fertile offspring). Within sexually reproducing species, genes get mixed up, so you can have blonds with blue eyes, blonds with brown eyes, brunettes with brown eyes, brunettes with blue eyes, etc.

Some species don't have sex; they are asexual. Many of these reproduce by bulbs, rhizomes, or other obviously asexual means, but some plants are apomictic, producing seeds without sex. In asexual species, the genes don't get mixed up, so you might get only blue-eyed blondes and brown-eyed brunettes, no other combinations, for example. Mutations introduce some variation to asexual species. To accommodate that variation, we tend to use broad species concepts for completely asexual species, though not all biologists agree.

Members of the European Blackberry Complex reproduce in a way that really messes with our species concepts. They mostly set seed asexually. What seem to be distinct individuals are actually clones, and a single clone might cover a whole county or more. However, blackberries also have sex. They may have sex even with distantly related members of the complex. The offspring of such crosses can look a bit different from the blackberry clones that were already spreading around the area. Are these clonal populations best thought of as different species or just different genetic individuals? Should every slightly different type be called a species? (Some people would argue yes, which is why you have 2000 named dandelion species in Europe.) If not, how much difference is necessary to name a species? This really messes with biologists minds. We don't agree. We probably will never agree.

Meanwhile, the blackberries go their merry way, spreading asexually through their stems (canes), asexually through seeds, and occasionally through sexually produced seeds. They do not care about our human need for neat, mutually exclusive names for talking about the kinds of blackberries.

This is why when people disagree about the species concepts of Rubus bifrons, R. armeniacus, and R. ulmifolius, I Don't Care. Call it what you want. I'll try to follow the herd when/if there is evidence of agreement about what species names we will arbitrarily apply to these plants that don't have species concepts the way we wish they would.

Ingresado el 10 de julio de 2021 por sedgequeen sedgequeen | 6 comentarios | Deja un comentario

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